Professor John Day

        Image of Prof John Day with flasks filled with micro algae

Head of Research, Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa

I am an applied phycologist with wide ranging interests in developing a sustainable algal biotechnology sector.

My research focusses on two key topics:

  • >Ensuring genotypic and functional stability of genetic resources by cryopreservation (storage at ultra-low temperatures)
  • >Undertaking research and development that moves the commercial exploitation of microalgae from concept to near market

Contact details:

My first degree in microbiology and PhD on the excretion of metabolites by immobilized photo-autotrophs stimulated by interests in algal biotechnology. Subsequently, working in a Biotech start up (Cell Systems Ltd), on Cambridge Science Park, I developed and was responsible for the scale up of the production of algal-based aquaculture feeds. Since 1990 my research focus has been on the conservation and exploitation of the microalgae, cyanobacteria and non-pathogenic protozoa held in the Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP). I have been actively engaged in cryobiology research, working on methodological development and validation, as well as exploring fundamental causes of cryo-injury. In addition, over the past 10 years, with colleagues at SAMS and external collaborators we have used CCAP as a platform to develop a series of major projects. These have explored the scientific and biotechnological potential of microalgae and their application as biofuels, aquaculture feeds, functional foods, high value metabolites and bioactives.

My current interests are to continue to undertake fundamental and applied research that underpins, facilitate, or contribute to the biotechnological exploitation of algae. These areas are complimented with interests in facilitating the Blue economy and the linkage of biological resources (cultures) to their Bioinformatic data.

Current research projects

The Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa. Funded by NERC. Lead PI. 2004-present

ALLIANCE/SUBMARINER. Funded by EU. Co-I/advisor. 2016-18

SAICHATCH. Funded by the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre. Co-I. 2016-18

ABACUS. Funded by EU H2020. Co-I. 2017-

Nat Protect. Funded by BBSRC (Phyconet POC). SAMS PI Bioprospecting project. 20117-18

European Marine Biological Research Infrastructure Cluster (EMBRIC) - to promote the blue bioeconomy. Funded by EU H2020. Co-I. 2015-18

Assemble+ Association of European Marine Biological Laboratories Expanded. Funded by EU H2020. SAMS Co-I and deputy JRA WP Leader

Selected past projects

Optimising the production of a biologically active microalgal polysaccharide. Funded by IBioIC Exemplar programme. 2014-15

Algal biofuels: Sustainable bioenergy from microalgae: A systems perspective. Funded by BBSRC. 2012-16

SeaBioTech. Funded by EU FP7. 2012-16

ASSEMBLE. Funded by EU FP7. 2011-15

EnAlgae. Funded by EU Interreg. 2011-15

BioMara. Funded by EU Interreg IVA; Scottish Government; Highlands and Islands Enterprise; Crown Estate; Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment (NI); and Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources.


Ross, ME, Davis, K, McColl, R, Stanley, MS, Day, JG and Semiao, AJC (2018).  Nitrogen uptake by the macro-algae Cladophora coelothrix and Cladophora parriaudii: Influence on growth, nitrogen preference and biochemical composition. Algal Research, Vol 30, 1-10.

Day JG, Gong Y and Hu Q (2017) Microzzoplanktonic grazers - A potentially devastating threat to the commercial success of microalgal mass culture. Algal Research.

Ross ME, Stanley MS, Day JG, Semião AJC (2017) A comparison of methods for the non-destructive fresh weight determination of filamentous algae for growth rate analysis and dry weight estimation. Journal of Applied Phycology. DOI 10.1007/s10811-017-1157-8

Tessarolli LP, Day JG and Vieira AAH (2017) Establishment of a Cryopreserved biobank for the Coleção de Culturas de Microalgas de Água-Doce (CCMA-UFSCar), São Paulo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica 17(2): e20160299 doi:10.1590/1676-0611-bn-2016-0299

Silkina A, Nelson G, Bayliss C & Day JG (2017) Bioremediation efficacy - comparison of anaerobic digested waste-based medium by a mixed algal consortium before and after cryopreservation. J. Appl. Phycol. 29:1331–1341.

Day JG, Tytor S, Egardt J, Applegren M, Rad Menéndez C, Chepurnova O, Vyverman W and Godhe A (2017) Challenges for the maintenance and cryopreservation of multiple isolates of model algal taxa: An example using Skeletonema marinoi. Biopreservation and Biobanking On line

McLeod AK, Stanley MS, Day JG and Cook EJ (2016) Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating Marine Renewable Energy generation. Biofouling 32(3): 261-276.

Lal S, Pearce M, Achilles-Day UEM, Day JG, Morton LHG, Crean StJ & Singhrao SK (2017) Developing an ecologically relevant heterogeneous biofilm model for dental biocides. Biofouling 33, 75-87.

Warren A, Patterson DJ, Dunthorn M, Clamp JC, Achilles-Day UEM, Aescht E, Al-Farraj SA, Al-Quraishy S, Al-Rasheid K, Carr M, Day JG, Dellinger M. El-Serehy HA, Fan Y, Gao F, Gomg GJ, Gupta R, Hu X, Kamra K, Langlois G, Lin X, Lipscomb D, Lobban CS, Luporini P, Lynn DH, Ma H, Macek M, Mackenzie-Dodds J, Makhija S, Mansergh RI, Martín-Cereceda M, McMiller N, Nikolaeva S, Ong-ondo GO, Pérez-Uz B, Purushothaman J, Quintela-Alonso

Rotterová J, Santoferrara L, Shao C, Shen Z, Shi X, Song W, Stoeck T, La Terza A, Vallesi A, Wang M, Weisse T, Wiackowski K, Wu L, Xu K, Yi Z, Zufall R & Agatha S (in press) Beyond the “Code”: A Guide to the Description and Documentation of Biodiversity in Ciliated Protists (Alveolata, Ciliophora). J Euk Microbiol On line

Day JG & Fleck RA (2015) Cryo-injury and the implications this has to the conservation of biological resources. Microalgae Biotechnology 1, 1–11.

Day JG, Burt DJ, Achilles-Day UEM & Stanley MS (2015) Future algal biofuels: implications of environmental temperature on production strain selection. Int J Ambient Energy 36, 248-252.

Emami K, Hack E, Nelson A, Brain CM, Lyne FM, Mesbahi E, Day JG, Caldwell GS (2015) Proteomic-based biotyping reveals hidden diversity within a microalgae culture collection: An example using Dunaliella. Scientific Reports (NPG) 5:10036 DOI: 10.1038/srep10036

Rad Menéndez C, Cox EJ, Green D, Stanley MS & Day JG (2015) Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Thalassiosira pseudonana (Bacillariophyceae) strains. JMBA 95, 1081-1090.

Slocombe SP, Zhang QY, Ross M, Anderson A, Thomas NJ, Lapresa A, Campbell CN, Black KD, Stanley MS & Day JG (2015) Unlocking nature’s treasure-chest: screening for oleaginous algae. Scientific Reports (NPG) 5:9844 DOI:10.1038/srep09844.

Stacey GN and Day JG (2014) Putting cells to sleep for future science. Nature Biotech. 32 (4), 320–322. doi:10.1038/nbt.2869

Hipkin R, Day JG, Rad Menéndez C & Mock T (2014) The first evidence of genotypic stability in a cryopreserved transgenic diatom. J. Appl. Phycol. 26, 65-71.

Day JG (2014) Cryopreservation of cyanobacteria. In: Cyanobacteria: An economic perspective. Naveen K Sharma, Ashwani K Rai & Lucas J Stal (eds) WILEY Publications. pp 319-328

Achilles-Day UEM, & Day JG (2013) Isolation of clonal cultures of endosymbiotic green algae from their ciliate hosts. J. Microbiol. Meth. 92, 355-357.

Buhmann MT, Day JG & Kroth PG (2013) Post-cryopreservation viability of the benthic freshwater diatom Planothidium frequentissimum depends on light levels. Cryobiology 67, 23-29.

Day JG (2013) Grazers – the overlooked threat to sustained production of future algal biofuels. Biofuels 4, 459-461. (doi: 10.4155/bfs.13.29)

Gäbler-Schwarz S, Rad Menéndez C, Achilles-Day UEM, Campbell CN, & Day JG (2013) Cryopreservation of Phaeocystis antarctica. CryoLetters 34 (6), 561-570.

Gachon CMM, Heesch S, Küpper FC, Achilles-Day UEM, Brennan D, Campbell CN, Clarke A, Dorrell RG, Field J, Gontarek S, Rad Menendez C, Saxon RJ, Veszelovszki A, Guiry MD, Gharbi K, Blaxter M & Day JG (2013) The CCAP KnowledgeBase: linking the algal / protistan biological resource with taxonomic and molecular data. Systematics and Biodiversity 11(4), 407–413.

Roleda MY, Slocombe SP, Leakey RJG, Day JG, Bell EM & Stanley MS (2013) Optimization of algal biomass and lipid production: Effects of temperature and nutrient regimes on batch culture of six oleaginous microalgae employing a two-phase cultivation strategy. Bioresource Technol. 129, 439-449.

Slocombe SP, Zhang QY, Black KD, Day JG & Stanley MS (2013) Determination of oil yields using a high-throughput screen for algal biofuels. J. Appl. Phycol. 25, 961-972.

Day JG, Slocombe SP and Stanley MS (2012) Overcoming biological constraints to enable the exploitation of microalgae for biofuels. Bioresource Technol. 109, 245-251.

Day JG, Thomas NJ, Achilles-Day UEM and Leakey RJ (2012) Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures. Bioresource Technol. 114, 715–719.

Heesch S, Day JG, Yamagishi T, Kawai H & Küpper FC (2012) Cryopreservation of the model alga Ectocarpus (Phaeophyceae). CryoLetters 33, 327-336.

Day JG, Pröschold T, Friedl T, Lorenz M & Silva PC (2010) Conservation of microalgal type material: approaches needed for 21st century science. Taxon 59, 3-6.

Harding K, Müller J, Timmermann H, Lorenz M, Day JG and Friedl T (2010) The use of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to verify the identity and genetic stability of euglenoids cryopreserved using encapsulation dehydration cryoprotective strategies. CryoLetters 31, 460-472.

Müller H, Achilles-Day UEM and Day JG (2010) Tolerance of the resting cysts of Colpoda inflata (Ciliophora, Colpodea) and Meseres corlissi (Ciliophora, Spirotrichea) to desiccation and freezing. E. J. Protistol. 46, 133-142.

Achilles-Day U.E.M., Pröschold T. and Day J.G. (2008) Phylogenetic position of the freshwater ciliate, Euplotes daidaleos (Diller,WF & Kounaris, D, 1966) within the Family of Euplotidae, obtained from Small Subunit rRna Gene Sequence. Denisia 23, 411-416.

Day J.G. and Stacey G.N. (2008) Biobanking. Molecular Biotechnology 40, 202-213.

Elster J., Lukavský J., Harding K., Benson E.E. and Day J.G. (2008) Deployment of the encapsulation/dehydration protocol to cryopreserve polar microalgae held at the Czech Republic Academy of Sciences Institute of Botany. CryoLetters 29, 27-28.

Harding K., Müller J., Lorenz M., Timmerman H., Friedl T., Day J.G. and Benson E.E. (2008) Deployment of the encapsulation/dehydration protocol to cryopreserve microalgae held at Sammlung von Algenkulturen, Universität Göttingen Germany. CryoLetters 29, 15-20.

Lukešová A., Hrouzek P., Harding K, Benson EE and Day JG (2008) Deployment of the encapsulation/dehydration protocol to cryopreserve diverse microalgae held at the Institute of Soil Biology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. CryoLetters 29, 21-26.

Müller H., Achilles-Day U.E.M. and Day J.G. (2008) Cryopreservation of resting cysts of the freshwater ciliate Meseres corlissi by conventional two-step methods and one-step vitrification protocols. CryoLetters 29, 329-338.

Day J.G., Lorenz L., Wilding, T., Friedl T., Harding, K., Pröschold, T., Brennan, D., Müller, J., Santos, L.M.A., Santos, M.F., Osório H.C., Amaral R., Elster, J., Lukavský, J., Lukešová, A., Hrouzek, P., Lukes, M., Probert, I., Ryan, M.J and Benson E.E. (2007) The use of physical and virtual infrastructures for the validation of algal cryopreservation methods in international culture collections. CryoLetters 28, 357-376

Gachon CMM, Day JG, Campbell CN, Pröschold T Saxon R and Küpper FC (2007) The culture collection of algae and protozoa (CCAP): a biological resource for protistan and cyanobacterial genomics. Gene 406, 51-57.

Müller J, Day JG, Harding K, Hepperle D, Lorenz M and Friedl T (2007) Assessing genetic stability of a range of terrestrial microalgae after cryopreservation using amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) Am J Bot 94, 799-808.

Fleck RA, Pickup RW, Day JG and Benson EE (2006) The use of flow-cytometry and cryomicroscopy to characterise cryopreservation-induced injuries in Euglena gracilis. Cryobiology 52, 261-268.

Johnstone C., Benson E.E., Day J.G. and Staines H. (2006) The development of a 2,2’–azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolourisation assay for evaluating total antioxidant status in an alga used to monitor environmental impacts in urban aquatic habitats. Ecological Indicators 6, 770-779.

Johnstone C., Day J.G., Staines H. and Benson E.E., (2006) An in vitro oxidative stress test for determining pollutant tolerance in algae. Ecological Indicators 6, 280-289.

Day JG and Brand JJ (2005) Cryopreservation Methods for Maintaining Cultures. In: Algal Culturing Techniques. Andersen R.A. (ed.) Academic Press, New York. pp 165-187.

Hédoin H., Pearson J., Day J.G., Philip D., Young A.J. and Hall T.J. (2006) Porphyridium cruentum A-408 and Planktothrix A-404 retain their capacity to produce biotechnologically exploitable metabolites after cryopreservation. J. appl. Phycol. 18, 1-7.

Day J.G., Benson E.E., Harding K., Knowles B., Idowu M., Bremner D., Santos L., Santos F., Friedl T., Lorenz M., Lukesova A., Elster J., Lukavsky J., Herdman M., Rippka R. and Hall T. (2005) Cryopreservation and conservation of microalgae: the development of a pan-european scientific and biotechnological resource (the COBRA project). CryoLetters 26, 231-238.

Lorenz M, Friedl T & Day JG (2005) Perpetual Maintenance of Actively Metabolizing Microalgal Cultures. In: Algal Culturing Techniques. Andersen R.A. (ed.) Academic Press, New York. pp145-155.

Love, G.D., Bowden, S.A., Summons, R. E., Jahnke, L.L., Snape CE, Campbell, C.N. & Day, J.G., (2005) An optimised catalytic hydropyrolysis method for the rapid screening of microbial cultures for lipid biomarkers. Organic Geochemistry 36, 63-82.

Comte K., Rippka R., Friedl T., Day J.G., Tandeau de Marsac N. and Herdman M. (2004). Assessment of genotypic identity of cyanobacterial strains in culture collections using HIP1-based primers. Nova Hedwigia 79 293-311.

Müller J., Friedl T., Hepperle D., Lorenz M. and Day J.G. (2005) Distinction of isolates among multiple strains of Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae) and Testing Conspecificity with Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and ITS rdna sequences. J. Phycol. 41, 1236-1247.

Day J.G. (2004) Cryopreservation: fundamentals, mechanisms of damage on freezing/thawing and application in culture collections. Nova Hedwigia 79 191-205

Day J.G., Lukavský, J., Friedl, T., Brand J.J., Campbell, C.N., Lorenz, M., and Elster, J., 2004. Pringsheim's living legacy: CAUP, CCALA, CCAP, SAG & UTEX. Nova Hedwigia 79 27-37.

Harding, K., Day, J.G., Lorenz, M., Timmermann H., Friedl, T., Bremner, D.H. & Benson E.E. (2004) Introducing the Concept and Application of Vitrification for the Cryo-conservation of Algae “A Mini Review”. Nova Hedwigia 79 207-226.

Suda S., Watanabe M.M., Otsuka S., Mahakahant A., Yongmanitchai W., Nopartnaraporn N., Liu Y.D., and Day J.G. (2002) Taxonomic revision of water-bloom-forming species of oscillatorioid cyanobacteria. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 52, 1577-1595

Fleck R.A., Benson E. E., Bremner D.H. & Day J.G. (2003) A comparative study of antioxidant protection in cryopreserved unicellular algae Euglena gracilis and Haematococcus pluvialis. CryoLetters 24: 213-228.

Johnstone C., Block W., Benson E.E., Day J.G., Staines H. and Illian J.B. (2002) Assessing methods for collecting and transferring viable algae from Signy Island, maritime Antarctic, to the UK. Polar Biology 25, 553-556.

Day J.G., Fleck RA and Benson E.E (2000) Cryopreservation-recalcitrance in microalgae: novel approaches to identify and avoid cryo-injury. J. appl. Phycol. 12, 369-377.

Fleck R.A., Benson E.E., Bremner D.H. and Day J.G. (2000) Studies of free radical-mediated cryoinjury in the unicellular green alga Euglena gracilis using a non-destructive hydroxyl radical assay: A new approach for developing protistan cryopreservation strategies. Free Radical Research 32, 157-170.

Day J.G., Benson E.E and Fleck RA (1999) In Vitro Culture and Conservation of Microalgae: Applications for Environmental Research, Aquaculture & Biotechnology. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.- Plant 35, 127-136.

Fleck, R.A., Day, J.G., Clarke, K.J. and Benson, E.E. (1999) Elucidation of the metabolic and structural basis for the cryopreservation recalcitrance of Vaucheria sessilis. CryoLetters 20, 271-282.

Day J.G. (1998) Cryo-conservation of microalgae and cyanobacteria. CryoLetters Supplement 1, 7-14.

Day J.G., Watanabe M.M. and Turner M.F. (1998) Ex situ conservation of protistan and cyanobacterial biodiversity : CCAP - NIES collaboration 1991 - 1997. Phycol. Research 46 Supplement, 77-83.

Smith, J.K., Parry, J.D., Day, J.G. and Smith, R.J. (1998) A PCR technique based on HIP1 interspersed repetitive sequence distinguishes cyanobacterial species and strains. Microbiology 144, 2791-2801.

Day J.G., Watanabe M.M., Morris G.J., Fleck R.A. and McLellan M.R. (1997) Long-term viability of preserved eukaryotic algae. J. appl. Phycol. 9, 121-127.

Fleck, R.A., Day, J.G., Rana, K.J. and Benson, E.E. (1997) Visualisation of cryoinjury and freeze events in the coenocytic alga Vaucheria sessilis using cryomicroscopy. CryoLetters 18, 343-355.

Day J.G. and McCulloch I.D (1996) Algae on the Internet. J. appl. Phycol. 8, 205-210.

Day J.G. and Tsavalos A.J. (1996) An investigation of the heterotrophic culture of the green alga Tetraselmis. J. appl. Phycol. 8, 73 - 77.

Tsavalos A.J. and Day J.G. (1994) Development of a medium for the mixotrophic/heterotrophic culture of Brachiomonas submarina. J. appl. Phycol. 6, 431-433.

Brown S. and Day J.G. (1993) An improved method for the long-term preservation of Naegleria gruberi. CryoLetters 14, 347-352.

Day J.G. and Fenwick C. (1993) Cryopreservation of members of the genus Tetraselmis used in aquaculture. Aquaculture 118, 151-160.

Fenwick C. and Day J.G. (1992) Cryopreservation of Tetraselmis suecica cultured under different nutrient regimes. J. appl. Phycol. 4, 105-109.

Day J.G., Edwards A.P. and Rodgers G.A. (1991) Development of an industrial scale process for the heterotrophic production of a micro-algal mollusc feed. Bioresource Technology 38, 245-250.

Austin B. and Day J.G. (1990) Inhibition of prawn pathogenic Vibrio spp. by Tetraselmis suecica. Aquaculture 90, 389-392.

Day J.G. and Codd G.A. (1985) Photosynthesis and glycollate excretion by immobilized Chlorella emersonii. Biotechnol. Letts. 7, 573‑577.

Other publications

Day JG (in press) Cryopreservation of Macroalgae. In: Protocol Book on Macroalgae, CRK Reddy, T Wichard & B Charrier (eds). CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, London.

Greenhill, L, Hughes, A, Day, JG and Stanley, MS (2015) Blue Knowledge - Developing knowledge to support transition to a Blue Economy: A strategic approach. Island Studies 3, 6-10.

Day J, Hughes A, Greenhill L and MS Stanley (2016) Blue Biotechnology.

Day JG (2016) Cryopreservation - A fundamental underpinning technology for the development of a sustainable blue economy. In: Proceedings of IIR Workshop - Cold applications in Life Sciences, Dresden, Sept 8-9, 2016. pp 32-35. DOI: 10.18462/iir.cals.2016.0035

Commonwealth Blue Economy Report Series, No. 5. Commonwealth Secretariat: London. 55pp ISBN (paperback): 987-1-84929-152-1 ISBN (downloadable e-book): 978-1-84859-946-8

Greenhill L, Day JG, Hughes A and Stanley MS (2016) Marine Renewable Energy. Commonwealth Blue Economy Series, No. 4. Commonwealth Secretariat, London. 64pp ISBN (paperback): 978-1-84929-155-2 ISBN (e-book): 978-1-84859-949-9

Hughes A, Day JG, Greenhill L and Stanley MS (2016) Aquaculture, Commonwealth Blue Economy Series, No. 2. Commonwealth Secretariat, London. 58pp ISBN (paperback): 978-1-84929-149-1 ISBN (e-book): 978-1-84859-943-7

Slocombe SP, Zhang QY, Ross M, Stanley MS & Day JG (2016) Screening and improvement of marine micro-algae for oil production. In: Micro-Algal Production for Biomass and High-Value Products, Stephen P. Slocombe & John R. Benemann (eds). CRC, Taylor & Francis group: Boca Raton, FL, pp 61-112.

Stanley MS and Day JG (2014) Algal Bioenergy. In: eLS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester. DOI: 10.1002/9780470015902.a0023715

Day JG and Stanley MS (2012) Biological constraints on the exploitation of microalgae for biofuels. In: Gordon, R. & J. Seckbach, Eds. The Science of Algal Fuels: Phycology, Geology, Biophotonics, Genomics and Nanotechnology. Dordrecht, Springer. pp 102-129.

Day JG (2011) Access to live algal cultures from the British Isles. In: John DM, Whitton BA & Brook AJ (eds) The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. pp 25-26.

Day JG and Harding K (2008) Cryopreservation Protocols for Working Laboratories: Lower plants: Algae. In: Plant Cryopreservation: A Practical Guide. Reed B.M. (ed), Springer, Dordrecht. pp 95-116.

Day, J.G., Harding, K., Nadarajan, J. and Benson, E.E. (2008) Cryopreservation: Conservation of bioresources at ultra-low temperatures. In: Molecular Biomethods Handbook 2nd Edition, John M Walker and Ralph Rapley (eds). Humana Press. pp 915-945.

Stacey, G.N., Day, J.G. (2007) Long-term ex situ conservation of Biological Resources and the role of Biological Resource Centres. In: Day JG & Stacey GN (eds) Cryopreservation and Freeze-drying Protocols. Humana Press. pp 1-14.

Williamson P and Day JG (2007) The problem with protists: is barcoding the answer? The Biologist 54, 86-90.

Benson EE, Harding K and Day JG (2007) Algae at extreme low temperatures: the cryobank. In: Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments. Sechback, J. (ed). Springer, Dordrecht, NL, pp 365–383.

Day, J.G. (2007) Cryopreservation of Microalgae and Cyanobacteria. In: Day JG & Stacey GN (eds) Cryopreservation and Freeze-drying Protocols. Humana Press. pp 139-149.

Day J.G. and Stacey G.N. (Eds) (2007) Cryopreservation and Freeze-drying protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology Humana Press Inc. Totowa, NJ. 348 pp.

Day J.G., Achilles-Day U., Brown S. and Warren A. (2007) Cultivation of algae and protozoa. In: manual of environmental microbiology. Hurst C.J., Kudsen G.R., McInerney M.J., Stezenbach L.D. and Walter M.V. (eds). ASM Press, Washington DC. pp 79-92.

Benson E.E., Harding K., Johnston J. and Day J.G. (2005) From ecosystems to cryobanks: the role of cryo-conservation in the preservation and sustainable utilization of global phyto-diversity. In: Contributing to a sustainable future: Proceedings of the Australian Branch of the IAPTC&B. pp 30-44. Bennett I.J., Bunn H., Clarke H. and McComb J.A. (eds). IAPTC&B, Perth, Western Australia.

Day J.G. (2005) Cryopreservation and the problem of freeze-recalcitrance, in algal culture collections. In: Culture Collections and Environmental Research. pp 73-86. Kasai F., Kaya K., and Watanabe M.M. (eds). Tokai University Press, Tokyo.

Day J.G., Benson E.E., Harding K., Knowles B., Idowu M., Bremner D., Watt S., Santos L., Santos F., Friedl T., Lorenz M., Lukesova A., Elster J., Lukavsky J., Herdman M., Rippka R., Hedoin H. and Hall T. (2003) The use of cryopreservation to develop a European scientific and biotechnological resource: the COBRA project. In: Biological Resource Centres and Use of Microbes. Lima N. and Smith D., Eds. MUM, Minho, Portugal, pp 307-320.

Friedl T, Day JG & Preisig HR (Eds.) (2004) Culture collections of algae: Increasing accessibility and exploring algal biodiversity. Nova Hedwigia 79.

Warren A., Day J.G. and Brown S. (2002) Cultivation of Protozoa and Algae. In: Manual of Environmental Microbiology (Second edition). Hurst C.J., Crawford R.L., Knudsen G.R., McInerney M.J. and Stezenbach L.D., Eds ASM Press, Washington D.C., pp 71-83.

Anon (2001) Catalogue of the UK National Culture Collection (UKNCC). List of algae and protozoa (1st Edition). UKNCC, Egham. 231pp.

Day J.G. and Smith D. (2001) UKNCC collections and services. In: The UKNCC Biological Resource: Properties, Management and Maintenance. UKNCC, Egham, pp165-178.

Smith D. Ryan M. and Day J.G. (Eds) (2001) The UKNCC Biological Resource: Properties, Management and Maintenance. UKNCC, Egham, 382pp.

Smith D., Clayton S., Ryan M.J., Day J.G. and Green P.N. (2001) General hints on growing microbes and animal cell lines. In: The UKNCC Biological Resource: Properties, Management and Maintenance. UKNCC, Egham, pp 42-71.

Smith D., Clayton S., Ryan M.J., Day J.G. and Green P.N. (2001) Preservation methodology. In: The UKNCC Biological Resource: Properties, Management and Maintenance. UKNCC, Egham, pp72-121.

Day, J.G. (1999) Conservation strategies for algae. In: Plant conservation biotechnology. Benson, E.E. (Ed.). Taylor and Francis Ltd., London. pp 111-124.

Warren A., Day J.G. and Brown S. (1997) Cultivation of Protozoa and Algae. In: Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Hurst C.J., Knudsen G.R., McInerney M.J., Stezenbach L.D. and Walter M.V. (Eds). ASM Press, Washington D.C. pp 61-71.

Day J.G. (1996) Conservation of microbial biodiversity: The Roles of Algal and Protozoan Culture Collections. Culture Collections to improve the quality of life. Proceedings of ICCC 8. Samson R.A., Stalpers J.A., van der Mei D. and Stouthamer A.H. (Eds). CBS Baarn, The Netherlands. pp 173 – 177.

Day J.G. (1995) The Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa - A living resource. Biol. Curat. 3, 20-23.

Day J.G. and DeVille M.M. (1995) Cryopreservation of algae. Methods in Molecular Biology 38, 81-89.

Day J.G. and McLellan M.R. (1995) Conservation of algae. In: Genetic preservation of plant cells in Vitro. Grout B.W.W. (Ed.). Springer Verlag, Heidelberg. pp 75-98.

Day J.G. and McLellan M.R. (Eds) (1995) Cryopreservation and Freeze-drying protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology 38. Humana Press Inc. Totowa, NJ. 254pp.

McLellan M.R. and Day J.G. (1995) Overview Methods in Molecular Biology 38, 1-5.

Tompkins J., DeVille M.M., Day J.G. and Turner M.F. (Eds) (1995) Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa Catalogue of strains (6th Edition). Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa, Ambleside. 208pp.

Day J.G. and Turner M.F. (1992) Algal culture collections and biotechnology. In: Proceedings of the symposium on culture collection of algae. M.M. Watanabe (Ed.). NIES, Tsukuba. pp 11-27.

McLellan M.R., Cowling A.J., Turner M.F. and Day J.G. (1991) Maintenance of algae and protozoa. In: Maintenance of Microorganisms. B. Kirsop and A. Doyle (Eds). Academic Press Ltd., London. pp 183-208.

Day J.G., Priestley I.M. and Codd G.A. (1987) Storage reconstitution and photosynthetic activities of immobilized algae. In: Plant and Animal Cells, Process Possibilities. C. Webb and F. Mavituna (Eds). Ellis Harwood Ltd., Chichester. pp 257-261.

Other research outputs

Day JG (2016) Culture course – Scientists address juvenile feed bottleneck with alternative algae. Fish Farmer Magazine 37 (7), 42-43.

Day JG (2015) Cryopreservation of microalgae & cyanobacteria employing a controlled rate cooler EnAlgae best practice SOP. 3pp.

Day JG (2015) Cryopreservation of micro-algae & cyanobacteria employing a passive freezer. EnAlgae best practice SOP. 2pp.

Day JG (2015) Maintenance of micro-algal master stock-cultures by routine serial transfer. EnAlgae best practice SOP. 5pp.

Day JG (2015) Management and monitoring of micro-algal & cyanobacterial master stock-cultures. EnAlgae best practice SOP. 5pp.

Day JG (2015) Post-thaw viability assessment of cryopreserved microalgae & cyanobacteria. EnAlgae best practice SOP. 4pp.

Day JG, Childs KH & Saxon R (2015) Management and monitoring of cryopreserved micro-algal & cyanobacterial master stock-cultures. EnAlgae best practice SOP. 5pp.

Day JG, Childs KH, Kennedy F & Stanley MS (2015) Criteria that should be considered, and options available, for maintaining algal strains associated with the EnAlgae project. Public Output report of the EnAlgae project, Swansea, 15pp.

Winterton C & Day JG (2014) Training –The key to sustainable growth of the algal biotechnology sector. The Phycologist 86, 5.

Achilles-Day UEM & Day JG (2013) Maintenance of marine heterotrophic flagellate protists. 2p

Gachon CMM, Achilles-Day UEM, Rad-Menéndez C & Day JG (2013) Molecular barcoding of protists. 2p

Day JG (2013) Cryopreservation of marine microalgae employing a passive freezer. 2p.

Day JG (2013) Cryopreservation of marine microalgae employing a controlled rate cooler. 2p

Day JG (2013) Cryopreservation of Ectocarpus. 2p

Day JG (2011) List of live algal cultures from the British Isles available from the major service culture collections. DVD supplement to John DM, Whitton BA & Brook AJ (eds) The freshwater algal flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Thomas NJ & Day JG (2013) Use of FlowCam to enumerate and differentiate between marine protists. 2p

Davidson K & Day J (2011) Stakeholder engagement through professional courses at SAMS. 2025: The newsletter of Oceans 2025. Issue 8 p5.

I have over 30 year’s experience working on applied algal projects and have, to date, authored 83 contract reports.

Commercially funded projects have included ecological studies, ecotoxicological studies, screening project, in addition to projects focussing on process and product development/ optimisation/ validation.

Customers have included: Alltech, Charterhouse Venture Capital Ltd., Glaxo plc., Grampian Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Hozelock Ltd., ITI Energy, Mars, National Power plc., North West Water plc., Sellafield Ltd., Unilever plc.


Accessing consultancy services from SAMS

SAMS consultancy work is delivered through its wholly owned commercial subsidiary, SAMS Research Services Ltd. (SRSL).

SRSL operates a comprehensive Quality Management System (QMS) that is accredited to ISO9001:2008 standard, guaranteeing that all projects deliver the best possible service to our customers.All SRSL projects are planned by a professional programme manager who oversees a team of dedicated project managers, all of whom are focussed specifically on client delivery, and have scientific experience and technical expertise in fields relevant to their assigned projects.

For further information concerning commercial enterprise opportunities at SAMS, please contact the SRSL team by email ( or phone +44 (0) 1631 559 470.


Marine Science BSc year 2: Marine Resources - lecturer

Marine Science BSc year 3: Marine Biotechnology - lecturer

Marine Science BSc year 4: Dissertation supervisor

Marine Science (Algal Biotechnology) MSc: The profeessional phycologist. Module leader

IBioIC Industrial Biotechnology MSc: Blue Biotechnology module

External examiner

2010-present: PhD examiner (Bangor, Aberdeen, Sheffield)

2010-present: MSc examiner (Aberdeen)

Current research students

Joe Penhaul-Smith: Utilising microalgal mixotrophy to maximise larval nutrition. PhD 2016-20. UHI

Cecilia Biancacci: Establishment of Osmundea pinnatifida mariculture. PhD 2015-18. UHI

Keelan Lawlor: Algal Surfactants - Lower Algal Surface Tension (LAST). PhD 2015-18. UHI

Michael Ross: Eutromop. 2013-17. University of Edinburgh

Alumni research students

Letícia Tessarolli: Exploring functionality and stability of cryopreserved algae. PhD 2012-16. University of Sao Paulo

Jennifer Reid: Assessing the suitability of Pleurochrysis and associated strains of Chrysotila for simultaneous biofuel production and carbon capture. MSc 2014-15. University of Aberdeen

Thomas Butler: An alternative strategy for astaxanthin production using Haematococcus pluvialis. MSc 2014-15. University of Aberdeen

Gwendolyn Hannam: Effects of nitrate stress on phenotypic plasticity in selected cyanobacteria. MSc 2013. University of Edinburgh

Chris Ridley: Microbial consortia: A way forward for the development of microalgae for industrial biotechnology? PhD 2012-15. Cambridge University

Carole Shellcock: Molecular aspects of algal biofuels. PhD 2010-14. UHI

Adrian MacLeod: The impacts of marine renewable energy structures on the invasion of bio-fouling non-native species. PhD 2010-13. UHI

Cecelia Rad Menendez: Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of Thallasiosira pseudonana. MSc (2009-11). UHI

Katie Harper: Community dynamics of freshwater picocyanobacteria and development and application of HIP 1 PCR. PhD 1998-2004. Lancaster University

Clare Johnstone: Using algae as environmental impact indicators in urban freshwater ponds. PhD 1999-2003. Abertay University, Dundee.

Andrew Cocking: Cryopreservation of chytrids. MSc 2000. Glasgow University

Roland Fleck: Mechanisms of cell damage and recovery in cryopreserved freshwater protists. PhD 1994-98. Abertay University, Dundee.


Professional memberships

Treasurer of the Society for Low Temperature Biology (SLTB) 2014-2017

Member of the UK Taxonomy Coordination Committee, NERC representative, 2014 – ongoing

Member of PRESPHOTO Follow-on Committee (Belgium cryopreservation project focussing on diatoms and cyanobacteria), 2014 – 2017

Member of APPLE (advisory panel of policy and legal experts) PharmaSea project, 2013-2016

Member of the International Committee of culture collections of algae (ICCCA), UK representative, 2011- ongoing

Independent expert assessor for EU COST Action 871 Conservation of crop species in Europe (CRYOPLANET), 2011

Member of the Steering committee for the FBA Pilgrim Trust algal digitisation project, 2008-2009

Member of British Phycological Society Council, 2007-2010

Trustee SLTB Charitable Trust, 2002-2004


Expert advice to regulators / government 

Member of the Foreign & Commonwealth Office Advisory Committee on Blue Biotechnology to the Seychelles Government, 2014 – 2015

Outreach/public engagement

Regular involvement with open days, visiting school and college groups.

Prizes / awards 

Personal Chair UHI (Dec 2014)

Media coverage

Recent media appearances relating to bioprospecting and biotechnological exploitation of microalgae in articles broadcast on: Bloomberg; BBC Radio 4 pm; BBC Breakfast News; BBC News channel; BBC Alba, CBBC Newsround and the BBC world service.

Other external measures of esteem

Editor in Chief European Journal of Phycology: 2007 - 2010

Editorial Board Microalgae Biotechnology (Versita): 2013 -  2017                           

Guest editor for Nova Hedwigia 79: 2004

Editorial Board CryoLetters: 2003 - 2006                

Reviewing Editor In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.: 2000 - 2011                

Refereeing grant applications to BBSRC; EPSRC; NERC; DOE; RHUL; USDA; Enterprise Ireland; IBioIC; SAMS; Czech Academy of Sciences; National Research Foundation in South Africa, Research Foundation Flanders (FWO), American Univ Beirut & Inst. Pasteur (Paris).

Refereeing manuscripts submitted to:African J. Biotechnol.; Algol. Studies; Applied Energy; Aquaculture; Brazil. J. Micro. Rev.; Biofouling; Biofuels Future Science; Chiang Mai Journal of Science; Cryobiology; CryoLetters; Diatom Research; Environ. Pollut.; Enzyme & Microbial Technol.; Eur. J. Phycol.; Glasgow Naturalist; In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.; Lichenologist; J. Cleaner Prod.; J. Chem Technol. & Biotechnol.; J. Phycol.; J. appl. Phycol.; J. Biomech. Eng.; J. Marine Biol.; Microbial Ecology; Indian J. Mar. Sci.; Marine Biotechnol.; Marine Biol.; NZ J. Mar. & Freshwater Res.; Phycol. Res.; Phycologia; Plant Cell Physiol.; Procedia Environmental Sciences; TIBTECH.

Recent keynote lectures include:

Phycological training course, Kindrogan, June 2017 

Phycomorph workshop, Limassol, Cyprus October 2016

Cryo 2016 Plant Session, Ottawa, Canada, July 2016.

Cryopreservation workshop at Global Genome Biodiversity Network meeting (Meeting the challenge: How to preserve a cross-section of the Tree of Life), Berlin, June 2016.

KALT meeting, Gatersleben Germany, November 2015.

SLTB meeting, Linnaean Society London, October 2015.

Recent conference organisation (organising committee, chair and /or session organiser for scientific conferences)

SLTB Meeting, British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge September 2017

EMBRIC WP2 workshops on Long-term Preservation and Reproductive Technology,

Plymouth, November 2016.

ECCO meeting, Aberdeen, November 2016.

SLTB meeting, ILK Dresden, September 2016.

P-UK, Bournemouth, April 2016

Natural Product Biotechnology, Inverness, Nov 2014.

International Bioenergy in Manchester March 2014


Professional memberships

British Phycological Society (BPS) (1983 – present)

British Society for Protistan Biology (BSPB) (2010 - present)

Society for Low Temperature Biology (SLTB) (1990 – present)

European Culture Collection Organisation (ecco) (1990 – present) 

World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) (1990 – present)

Employment history

2015-present: Head of CCAP Science. SAMS

2008-15: Head of CCAP. SAMS from 2012. 2008-12 SAMS/NERC

2006-08: Deputy Head of CCAP. SAMS/NERC

2004-06: PI and curator of CCAP. SAMS NERC

1990-2003: Project leader; Curator of CCAP (IFE/CEH Windermere). NERC

1989-90: Project leader algal fermentation project. Cell Systems Ltd & Genencor International, Hanko, Finland 

1987-89: Research scientist. Cambridge Science Park. Cell Cycetmes 


1987 PhD Applied Phycology. University of Dundee

1983: BSc (Hons) Microbiology. University of Dundee